South African health care facilities – an estimated 1.75 million people annually seek health care for injuries resulting from violence

HIV – an estimated 16% of all HIV infections in women could be prevented if women did not experience domestic violence from their partners. Men who have been raped have a long-term increased risk of acquiring HIV and are at risk of alcohol abuse, depression and suicide.

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Reproductive health – women who have been raped are at risk of unwanted pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Mental health – over a third of women who have been raped develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which if untreated persists in the long term and depression, suicidality and substance abuse are common. Men who have been raped are at risk of alcohol abuse, depression and suicide.

Violence also has significant economic consequences. The high rate of GBV places a heavy burden on the health and criminal justice systems, as well as rendering many survivors unable to work or otherwise move freely in society.